Due to Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) between SNPs, signals in high-LD regions will be over-represented, leading to bias in the PRS. To maximize the signals for PRS analysis, an association information driven pruning algorithm, i.e. Clumping can be performed. That is, when a SNP pair is in LD, only the SNP with the lowest p-value will be retained, this prevents the more associated SNP being removed from subsequent analysis, thus preserved the signal.

In PRSice, the PLINK clumping algorithm is implemented where the r2 values computed are based on maximum likelihood haplotype frequency estimates. In addition, the LD is calculated in all founder samples (ignoring case control status).


If you would like to perform the LD estimates on only the controls, you can use --ld and --keep/--remove.


When no reference panel is provided, the target samples will be used for LD calculation. However, none of the --ld-* parameters will take effect. The --ld-* parameters will only have an effect on the --ld file. You will need to resupply the target file to the --ld parameter for the --ld-* parameters to take effect


  • --clump-kb The distance for clumping in kb. Default: 250

  • --clump-r2

    The r2 threshold for clumping. Default: 0.1

  • --clump-p

    The p-value threshold use for clumping. Default: 1.

  • --ld | -L

    LD reference file. Use for estimation of LD during clumping. If not provided, will use the post-filtered target genotype for LD calculation. Support multiple chromosome input. Please see --target for more information. When you target sample is small (e.g. < 500) and external panel of the same population is available (e.g. 1000 genome), you might want to use the external reference panel to improve the LD estimation for clumping.

  • --ld-geno

    Filter SNPs based on genotype missingness. Must be a value between 0.0 and 1.0.

  • --ld-info

    Filter SNPs based on info score. Only used for imputed LD reference. The INFO score is calculated as the MaCH imputation r-squared value. The pseudo code is represented as follow:

    m=Mean of expected genotype
    v=variance of expected genotype
    p_a = 2p(1-p)
    INFO = v/p_a
  • --ld-hard-thres

    Hard threshold for dosage data. Any call less than this will be treated as missing.Default: 0.9

  • --ld-keep

    File containing the sample(s) to be extracted from the LD reference file. First column should be FID and the second column should be IID. If --ignore-fid is set, first column should be IID. Mutually exclusive from --ld-remove. No effect if --ld was not provided

  • --ld-maf

    Filter SNPs based on minor allele frequency (MAF)


    When perform MAF filtering on dosage data, we will calculate the MAF using the hard-coded genotype

  • --ld-remove

    File containing the sample(s) to be removed from the LD reference file. First column should be FID and the second column should be IID. If --ignore-fid is set, first column should be IID. Mutually exclusive from --ld-keep

  • --ld-type

    File type of the LD file. Support bed (binary plink) and bgen format. Default: bed\n"

  • --no-clump

    When set, PRSice will not perform clumping. This is useful when you have a pre-clumped list of SNPs and want PRSice to only perform the regression analysis.

  • --proxy

    Proxy threshold for index SNP to be considered as part of the region represented by the clumped SNP(s). e.g. --proxy 0.8 means the index SNP will represent region of any clumped SNP(s) that has r2=0.8 even if the index SNP does not physically locate within the region